Orientation Guide

Welcome to Reef Pulse Hawaii, an action-packed, hands-on adventure across Hawaii’s reefs and into the universe beyond. Hawaii Coral Reef Initiative’s new inquiry-based marine science curriculum introduces students to astronomy, biology, chemistry, navigation, physics, and scientific investigation in six exciting units. Teachers can use this resource to supplement existing science lessons or it can be used as a standalone curriculum. Using the curriculum, students learn how living things depend on non-living things in a complete, functioning system.

How to Use This Guide

We have structured the Teacher’s Guide around the questions most teachers ask about a curriculum. The guide covers the purpose and educational philosophy of Reef Pulse Hawaii and an overview of the curriculum’s content and structure in a FAQ format. Further information is included in several appendices, including science topics covered in the curriculum, FYI box topics, online teacher resources, curriculum table of content, song list, Reader list, and a list of educational standards addressed in the curriculum. We recommend you review the information concerning the goals and structure of Reef Pulse Hawaii, but beyond that feel free to use whichever sections may be useful to you.

Introduction and Goals

Dive into Reef Pulse Hawaii for some creative ways to teach your students about the life you see every day in and around Hawaii. Use this Orientation Guide to get to know the curriculum and discover ways to make it a part of your lesson plans. The following question and answers are presented to explain the basics of Reef Pulse Hawaii. The following sections provide practical guidance for using the curriculum successfully. Don’t forget to check our website for updates, extra resources, and blogs and discussion from other educators using this resource.

Why Was Reef Pulse Created?

The Hawaii Coral Reef Initiative (HCRI) was established in 1998 with the goal of increasing understanding of our valuable nearshore reef ecosystem. HCRI’s main mission is to fund scientific research and monitoring in order to advance effective resource management in Hawaii. In 2006 HCRI took on the task of creating a marine science curriculum for grades K-2 to educate young children about Hawaii's nearshore ocean environment. Reef Pulse Hawaii was accomplished with the help of many talented and creative people. It has been through an intensive and iterative review process by educators and researchers from across the State of Hawaii.

Who Should Use This Curriculum?

Anyone who wants to teach or learn about earth system sciences can use Reef Pulse Hawaii! The curriculum was designed with Hawaii State standards and age-appropriate materials for grades K-2, but several upper-elementary, middle, and high school educators have successfully adapted the activities and information for their students.


What are the goals of Reef Pulse?

  • Provide educators with fun lessons that align to state and national standards.
  • Engage all learning styles in the learning process.
  • Enable all students to participate through differentiation strategies.
  • Educate students about the unique marine environment surrounding them.
  • Allow unique opportunities for self-guided learning.
  • Involve parents in the learning process.
  • Unite educators, parents, students, and the community in improving local quality of life. 

How Does Reef Pulse Work?

Reef Pulse Hawaii was designed as a “hands-on/minds-on” curriculum. This means, we provide hands-on activities to stimulate the minds of our young children. Education research has shown us how well students learn through inquiry.

We broke the curriculum up into six main units. Each unit is split into lessons that cover subtopics. Several activities—presented in a “Five E” format—make up each lesson. When combined, the activities show a complete picture of the lesson’s focus that students can then connect to the unit’s topic. At the end of each activity, we included a list of Hawaii Content and Performance Standards (HCPS) benchmarks that the particular activity met.

What is the Pedagogy Used in Reef Pulse?

Reef Pulse Hawaii integrates both traditional and holistic methods of teaching to provide a complete education experience for students and teachers. The pedagogy employed emphasizes a constructivist teaching approach, using a modified Five E (engage, explore, explain, elaborate, and evaluate) + Assess instructional model. This pedagogy emphasizes an active learning experience while establishing a set curriculum with sequential, related information.

Each activity prompts teachers to conduct a “Know, Wonder, Learn” session with students before beginning the activity. In this session, the teacher announces the lesson concept and asks students what they know, wonder, and want to learn about it. Furthermore, each activity in the curriculum poses a question to students, to be asked and answered before commencing the activity. The question asks students to hypothesize the answer that will be illustrated through the corresponding activity, allowing them to follow scientific process by developing and testing a hypothesis.

We designed the curriculum this way to foster in students the desire to ask questions and work to find the answers. Students engage in experimentation and data collection to arrive at individual explanations. By coming up with their own ideas, students learn that science is tentative and creative. They also work together and communicate their results to others; this builds teamwork skills and helps students understand the collaborative nature of science.

What Are The Five Es?

The Five Es refer to an inquiry-based frame for each activity. They are: Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, and Evaluate. Each stage builds on the rest to create complete and focused activities. You may know the Five E model by the name “Learning Cycle.”


This is the hook. Each Engage activity captures students’ interest, gets students excited, and provokes questions about the activities. Think of the Engage as a movie trailer. It contains just enough information to make students curious and ready to investigate further.


This is where the inquiry takes center stage. Students get hands-on and minds-on to explore the content on their own. Through experiment or demonstration, students are actively doing something to learn. At this stage, students are developing a frame for the information they will receive in the next stage.


This is where you, as a teacher, come in! You will help explain the concept. Use the information from the Explain section along with the information in the teacher’s background to answer the “Think About It” questions after you complete the Engage and again after the Explore.


This is the stage to build on the foundation formed during the previous E’s. Once students grasp the main point of the activity, Elaborate adds to their knowledge. For example, students first learn in Engage, Explore and Explain that an axis is the imaginary point around which an object spins. In Elaborate, they make their own Earth and axis and learn that Earth’s axis has to be in the center or it would wobble as it rotates.


This is where you find out if students really get it using the two Evaluate questions. The first question asks about the main topic of the activity and is taken from the cartoon at the beginning of the activity. It usually involves a fun project to show what students now know. The second question tests students’ ability to apply their learning to answer a related question.

What Learning Styles Are Used In Reef Pulse?

Since students learn in different ways, Reef Pulse Hawaii integrates multiple styles of learning into its activities with the goal of engaging all students regardless of learning style. For visual learners, the curriculum includes original drawings that can be printed as handouts or overheads. Many activities include taking notes by drawing observations and various art projects. For auditory learners, the curriculum includes original songs, original stories, games that involve clapping and rhythm, and suggested read-a-loud books. For tactile/kinesthetic learners, the curriculum includes activities that involve movement through actively exploring the physical world around them and creating things with their hands.

How Do I Create Lesson Plans Online?

Reef Pulse Hawaii's lesson plan creator allows you to assemble sets of activities. But before you can create lesson plans, you need to set up an account on the Reef Pulse site.

To begin setting up your account, click on the "register" link In the upper right corner of the page, underneath the username and password boxes. On the registration screen, fill in all the requested information, and click "register." After you've registered your account, an e-mail will be sent to the e-mail address you provided. Follow the link in the e-mail to confirm your account. Then, you'll receive another e-mail when the Reef Pulse site administrator activates your account.

Once your account is set up, enter your username and password in the login box at the upper right corner. After logging in, the lesson plan creator menu will show up in the left column of the page. There are three options in the menu:

  • Lesson Plan Creator
  • My Lesson Plans
  • All Lesson Plans

Lesson Plan Creator

To create your first lesson plan, click on Lesson Plan Creator. Assembling a lesson plan is easy. Just enter a name and description for a plan, and then select an activity using the menu below. Then click "add to Lesson Plan" to add the selected activity to the lesson plan. After you've added all the activities you need, click "Save Lesson Plan" button. If you want other users to be able to view your lesson plan, make sure the share with others box is checked.

My Lesson Plans

On the My Lesson Plans page, you can edit, view, or delete the lesson plans you've already created.

All Lesson Plans

On the All Lesson Plans page, you can see all of the lesson plans users have shared. You can organize the list by Lesson Plan Name, Rating, or Creator, by clicking on those column titles. You can also rate each lesson plan, but clicking the stars below each lesson plan title.

Adding An Activity While Viewing It

After logging in, you can add activities to a lesson plan while you're viewing them on the curriculum section of the site. On each activity page, a drop-down menu will appear, allowing you to select an existing lesson plan to add the activity to. You can also choose to create a new lesson plan containing the activity.


Reef Pulse is a science-focused curriculum that covers major topics and standards in chemistry, biology, earth science, and physics for grades K-2. You can find a complete list of topics in Appendix 1.
Each unit in Reef Pulse gets divided into lessons. Each lesson is a subtopic of the big idea of the unit. Those lessons get further divided into activities that chunk the big idea into manageable sections.


All activities cover an open, two-page layout for easy printed use.

Teaching the Curriculum


You’ve explored the website, downloaded an activity, and want to teach it. Now what? Here are some strategies that we think will make your Reef Pulse Hawaii experience a success!

Make a Game Plan

Read all of the FYI boxes in the activity. They contain fun resources, interdisciplinary links, and even jokes! Students will enjoy hearing them.

Plan Ahead!

Make sure you have your materials sorted and ready to go before you start the activity. This will eliminate the need to interrupt the flow of the lesson or backtrack for supplies. The Ready section includes “teacher prep” as well as a list of other activities in the curriculum that are related. You can link to these activities as follow-up lessons. As you plan, consider these questions:
  • How long do I have to teach the activity?
  • Do I have everything I need?
  • Can I explain the concepts the students are learning?
  • What will I do in the event of an accident or spill?
  • Will all students be able to do the activity? How can I make it better for them?


We know that no two learners are exactly the same. Reef Pulse Hawaii appeals to a variety of learning styles, but even though two students might be visual learners, they may move at very different speeds. You probably already have some tried and true methods, but just in case, here are some we find helpful.

Writing or drawing

For students that can't write or can't write well, consider letting them draw pictures or give verbal interpretations of a question or activity.

Cooperative learning

Many activities in Reef Pulse Hawaii rely on groups to complete stages of the learning cycle. Plan your groups ahead of time. A struggling student may benefit from being placed with an average-paced or more advanced student. Consider personalities. It might take an outgoing student to help a shy learner develop and ask questions. Almost any aspect of Reef Pulse activities can be turned into group or individual work.

Know-Wonder-Learn (K-W-L) Charts

We suggest using these at the beginning and end of every activity. The KNOW and WONDER part is a great way to pre-asses students, and the LEARN section shows you how far they've come from their starting place. It also gives students a chance to self-evaluate their learning and think of new questions.

Gifted and Advanced Students

Consider giving students a more open platform for learning. Instead of giving them procedures and materials, give them supplies and let them develop their own procedures.


Research shows that reflective educators are more effective. Thinking about experiences gives you a chance to figure out what went right or wrong, and how to change that in the future. After an activity, consider these questions:
  • How did students respond to the activity?
  • Did they understand the concept?
  • What worked? What didn’t work?
  • If I had to do the activity again, what would I change or add?

Appendix 1: Unit Summary

Unit 1: Matter! It makes up everything we see and touch. Students begin the unit by exploring the nature of matter, including atoms and molecules. They explore firsthand what makes elements and how matter changes states. They see how changing the temperature of an object changes its state, since the speed of an object’s molecules depends on temperature, and they learn about light and electrical energy and how it impacts their everyday lives.

Unit 2: Water! One of the most important molecules on Earth is water. Students study water to gain an understanding of wave energy. They see not only does water travel in waves, but so does sound. They even get to experience the sounds ocean animals make to communicate. When molecules collide, they transfer energy. Students see that as heating and cooling. On a larger scale, students learn how water heats and cools in the water cycle, which then allows them to make the connection between the water cycle and weather patterns.

Unit 3: Zoom! Weather shapes the features of different areas of the earth, and scientists sort these different areas based on many features. In Zoom!, students practice their classifying skills by sorting Earth materials by size, shape, and texture. Once they have an idea of how to sort, students learn regions of the world have their own kinds of producers—biomes. Sorting ecosystems within biomes based on climate provides students the opportunity to see the connections between long term weather patterns (climate) and large scale groupings of Earth’s surface. Further sorting these ecosystems into habitats gives students a chance to see what animals need from a habitat, including living space and food. Students learn how scientists use tools and perform research. They get hands-on with quadrats, collecting samples, searching for signs of living creatures, and how to track animals with different tools.

Unit 3: Zoom! Weather shapes the features of different areas of the earth, and scientists sort these different areas based on many features. In Zoom!, students practice their classifying skills by sorting Earth materials by size, shape, and texture. Once they have an idea of how to sort, students learn regions of the world have their own kinds of producers—biomes. Sorting ecosystems within biomes based on climate provides students the opportunity to see the connections between long term weather patterns (climate) and large scale groupings of Earth’s surface. Further sorting these ecosystems into habitats gives students a chance to see what animals need from a habitat, including living space and food. Students learn how scientists use tools and perform research. They get hands-on with quadrats, collecting samples, searching for signs of living creatures, and how to track animals with different tools.

Unit 4: Explore! Explore! Students broaden their horizons in Explore! by looking at how outer space influences Hawaii’s oceans. They see the sun’s role in influencing weather and seasons, even creating an instrument that meteorologists (weather scientists) use regularly. Students also learn gravity is a major force on Earth, making objects fall and causing the tides. Students see the relationship between the moon’s gravity and tides on Earth, as well as experimenting with forces created by the Earth’s spin. Tides play a role in exploration and students get to use the tools that explorers have used to see the world for centuries. They will see that changes in navigation tools have influenced society for the better.

Unit 5: Alive! Here, students study the living things in Hawaii’s reef habitats. They start by comparing alive, not alive (dead), and never alive, examining traits that make something alive, from eating and breathing to defending and growing. Students make connections between the structures (physical features) living things use to eat, breathe, grow and defend, and how those structures change as the living thing grows.

Unit 6: Energy! Students make connections between energy and movement, looking at structures that help animals move through water. They learn chemical reactions keep life going, starting with chemical reactions in the sun. One chemical reaction in living things turns food into energy. Students follow energy flow from the sun through an ecosystem’s food web. Students draw on prior knowledge to determine how scientists classify consumers by their diets. Students also recognize energy is never created or destroyed, but only changes form. They discover mechanical energy through gears, levers, and other simple tools.

Appendix 2: Table of Contents

  • Lesson 1: Atoms Everywhere
  • Lesson 2: States of Matter
  • Lesson 3: Light Energy
  • Lesson 4: Electrical Energy
  • Lesson 1: Wave Energy
  • Lesson 2: Heat Energy
  • Lesson 3: Water Cycle
  • Lesson 4: Weather Matters
  • Lesson 1: Sort It Out!
  • Lesson 2: Biomes and Ecosystems
  • Lesson 3: Habitats
  • Lesson 4: Scientific Exploration
  • Lesson 1: Sun
  • Lesson 2: Earth
  • Lesson 3: Moon and Stars
  • Lesson 4: Human Exploration
  • Lesson 1: Alive or Not
  • Lesson 2: Alive and Eating
  • Lesson 3: Alive and Breathing
  • Lesson 4: Alive and Defending
  • Lesson 5: Alive and Growing
  • Lesson 1: Chemical Energy and Food Chain
  • Lesson 2: Mechanical Energy

Appendix 3: Song List

Unit 1
Matter Matters (U1-L1-Launch!, p.5)
Periodic Elements (U1-L1-A4, p.27)
Opposites Cheer (U1-L3-Launch!, p.5)
Circuit Hokey-Pokey (U1-L4-A3, p.20)

Unit 2
Heat Energy Chant (U2-L2-A2, p.13)
Water Cycle Song (U2-L3-Launch!, p.5)
Weather Jazz (U2-L4-A1, p.10)

Unit 3
Travel to the Beach (U3-L1-A1, p.7)
Tidepooling (U3-L3-A2, p.19)
A-L-G-A-E (U3-L3-A3, p.25)
Scientific Exploration (U3-L4-Launch!, p.5)
Pinch-Don’t Pull (U3-L4-Launch!, p.13)
Transect Tool (U3-L4-A4, p.25) 

Unit 4
Alohi La (U4-L1-A4, p.29)
Spinning (U4-L2-A3, p.22)
Seasons March (U4-L2-A3, p.27)
Hawaiian Seasons (U4-L2-A3, p.30)
Tides (U4-L3-A5, p.36))
How Did You Get There? (U4-L4-Launch!, p.5)
Radar, Sonar, and Lidar (U4-L4-A6, p.40)

Unit 5
Not Alive (U5-L1-Launch, p.5)
Many Stems, Leaves, and Roots (U5-L2-A1, p.8)
Algae Photosynthesis (U5-L2-A1, p.10)
Green, Brown and Red Algae (U5-L2-A1, p.15)
Turtle Chomp (U5-L2-A8, p.64)
Oxy-Go-Round (U5-L3-A1, p.11)
Breathe Rap (U5-L3-A2, p.20)
Defend (U5-L4-Launch!, p.5)
Who’s Afraid of the Crown of Thorns? (U5-L4-A6, p.44)
Coral Life Cycle (U5-L5-A3, p.26)
Honu Egg (U5-L5-A5, p.40)
Rock-a-bye Fishes (U5-L5-A8, p.62)

Unit 6
Going on a Fish Hunt (U6-L1-A4, p.30)
Surf’s Up (U6.L2.Launch!, p.6)
Push-Pull (U6-L2-A2, p.15)

Appendix 4: Reader List

Unit 1 L1 K-1 How Small Is an Atom? 2-3 Democritus and the Atom
  L2 K-1 Guess 2-3 Beach Elements
  L3 K-1 Sunrise Windows 2-3 Bouncing, Bending, and Blocking
  L4 K-1 Switching On 2-3 An Electric Morning
Unit 2 L1 K-1 On a Surfboard 2-3 Up and Down
  L2 K-1 Friction 2-3 Hot Stuff!
  L3 K-1 Cycles 2-3 The Day My Puddle Dried
  L4 K-1 Clouds 2-3 Watch Out!
Unit 3 L1 K-1 Rock 2-3 Animal Groups
  L2 K-1 Where? 2-3 North Pole Dream
  L3 K-1 Coral Haiku 2-3 Mac and Cheese
  L4 K-1 Ocean Scientist 2-3 Patterns, Patterns, Everywhere!
Unit 4 L1 K-1 Inside Outside Upside Down 2-3 The Story of Icarus
  L2 K-1 Spin, Earth, Spin 2-3 Mainland Trees
  L3 K-1 Sky Lights 2-3 If I Were an Astronaut
  L4 K-1 Kayak to Shore! 2-3 Magellan's Dream
Unit 5 L1 K-1 Is It Alive? 2-3 Fish and Cars
  L2 K-1 A Real "Fishy" Story 2-3 What Will You Bring?
  L3 K-1 Oxygen 2-3 The Snort
  L4 K-1 The Snort 2-3 Algavores
  L5 K-1 Sisters 2-3 Fish of All Sizes
Unit 6 L1 K-1 Phytoplankton to the Rescue! 2-3 Breakfast
  L2 K-1 How do you Move? 2-3 Paddleboard Race!

Appendix 5: Science Topics Covered in Reef Pulse


  • U4.L1 – Sun: Light, heat, wind, waves
  • U4.L2 – Earth: Rotation and revolution
  • U4.L3 – Moon and Stars: moon phases, constellations and navigation
  • U4.L2 & L3 – Gravity and tides


  • U3.L2 – Biomes and ecosystems
  • U3.L3 – Habitats
  • U3.L4 – Scientific methods for gathering data on animals
  • U4.L3 – Moon’s effect on marine life
  • U4.L1 – Sun and photosynthesis
  • U5.L1 – Classification of living and non-living things
  • U5.L2 – Marine animal and plant’s eating structures
  • U5.L3 – Marine animal and plant’s breathing structures
  • U5.L4 – Marine animal and plant’s defense structures
  • U5.L5 – Marine animal and plant’s life cycles

Earth Science

  • U2.L3 – Water cycle
  • U2.L4 & U4.L1 – Sun: Role in weather
  • U4.L1 – Weather
  • U3.L1 – Earth materials: Rocks, soils, sand


  • U1.L1 – Matter: Atoms, molecules, elements
  • U1.L2 –States of matter
  • U2.L2 – Heat energy
  • U6.L1 – Chemical energy

Navigation and Exploration

  • U4.L4 – Cardinal directions (N,E, S, W)
  • U4.L4 – Latitude and longitude
  • U4.L4 – Tools used in navigation
  • U4.L4 – Advances in exploration and navigation


  • U1.L3 – Light energy
  • U1-L4: Electrical energy
  • U2.L1 – Wave energy
  • U2.L1 – Sound energy
  • U6.L2 – Mechanical energy

Appendix 6: FYI Box Topics

Science and Technology

  • Scientists Say: Terminology used by scientists
  • What's in a Word?: Word origin
  • Did You Know?: Interesting fact
  • Interesting Fact: More interesting facts
  • On a Related Note: Still more interesting facts
  • Invention Center: Related inventions
  • Career Corner: Related careers
  • NOAA Link: NOAA fact and website


  • Hawaii Nei: Information relevant to Hawaii



  • Keiki Storytime: Read Aloud book with call number
  • Reading Resource: Reference book with call number
  • Website Resource: Website suggestion
  • Video Resource: DVD with call number



  • Literature Link: Reference to a book or poem
  • Historical Note: Historical information
  • Cultural Note: Cultural information
  • Just for Fun: Fact, joke, game, or other fun information

Appendix 7: Online Teacher Resources

NOAA Resources


Discover Your World With NOAA: An Activity Book: 43 activities to learn more about your world and how NOAA helps you explore, understand, and protect our Earth.


Resources on atmospheric science topics for teachers, students, and the general public.


Games on ecology, atmospheric sciences, and more.


Information on different career fields in science and current opportunities with NOAA.

Coral Reef

Information on coral reefs, conservation programs, current research topics, and more.

Office of Education

Links to funding and more.

Photo sharing

Photostream: NOAA's social media photo sharing


Tides and Water Levels Tutorial

Tsunami Education

Resource Kit offers curricula, brochures, and other resources to raise awareness about the dangers of tsunamis.

Ocean Explorer

Resources for all grade levels and links to professional development opportunities.

Hawaii Coral Reef Initiative Resources


Posters, brochures, videos and more
www.hawaii.edu/ssri/hcri >> Education >> Publications

Reports Research activities. Powerpoints and reports.
www.hawaii.edu/ssri/hcri >> Research

Appendix 8: Doing Activities Safely

Most of the instructions on safety should follow common sense ideas on classroom management. The following suggestions are a friendly reminder to stay on your guard about safety. We want to make sure everyone has the best experience possible while learning with Reef Pulse.


Some group activities (like those in U1.L4) require the use of wire and batteries. Make sure the groups are adequately supervised. If you don’t have an assistant, call some parents or guardians to volunteer to come in and help out. Even when an activity appears safe, remember to circulate among groups or individuals to make sure your students have all the help they need.

Sharp Objects

Make sure students understand basic protocol when working with scissors. (Don’t run with them, carry them point-down, and be careful when cutting anything.) Always supervise students when working with scissors or other sharp objects.

Edible Activities

Some activities use edible materials. Of these activities, some allow the end product to be consumed, but some use inedible materials as well and should not be eaten. Make sure your instructions are clear so students understand what can and cannot be eaten. Also be aware of food allergies, as some materials include nuts, dairy, or food dyes.

Appendix 9: Comprehensive Materials List

Each activity has a materials list on the first page for quick reference. Most activities utilize readily available classroom supplies that are often kept on hand. The materials most commonly used are:
Salt dough (ingredients)
  • Flour
  • Salt
  • Cream of tartar
  • Water
  • Vegetable oil

Pencils Paper Plates 

Permanent Markers  

Paper Cups
Colored Markers  Straws
Tempera Paint   

Construction Paper 

Mixing Bowls 

Plain Paper  Water Pitchers 
Waxed paper  Mixing Spoons 
Origami Paper 
Parchment Paper  String
Plastic Wrap  Yarn 
Aluminum Foil Pipe Cleaners 



Glue Paper Towels 
Scissors  Cardboard 
Stapler  Poster Board 
Paintbrushes Plastic Beads 

In addition to these materials, some lessons call for specialty items. Below are listed these items, along with where they may be available.

Spirograph tool    available at www.ehobbies.com or www.amazon.com


Glycerin             available at most craft supply stores in the soap making section U1.L2 
Shrink Plastic available online at various retailers (search "Buy shrink plastic") or make your own by cutting shrink plastic from #6 containers  U1.L3 
Electrical Supplies/Magnets  available at Radio Shack or  www.sciencekit.com U1.L4 
Inflatable Globe Balls available at www.thinktanktoys.com/globe.html U3.L2 
Magic Nuudles  available online at various retailers (search "Buy magic nuudles")  U3.L3

Appendix 10: Standards

Hawaii Content & Performance Standards III met in the curriculum:

  • K.1.1 - Use the senses to make observations.
  • K.1.2 - Ask questions about the world around them.
  • K.1.3 - Collect data about living and non-living things.
  • K.2.1 - Identify different types of technologies that exist at home, in the classroom, and/or in the world.
  • K.3.1 - Identify similarities and differences between plants and animals.
  • K.4.1 - Identify differences between living and non-living things.
  • K.5.1 - Identify ways in which some offspring are very much like their parents, although not exactly.
  • K.6.1 - Classify objects by their attributes (e.g., physical properties, materials of which they are made).
  • K.8.1 - Report and describe weather changes from day to day and over the seasons.
  • K.8.2 - Identify different types of celestial objects seen in the day and night sky (e.g., sun, moon, stars).
  • 1.1.1 - Collect, record, and organize data using simple tools, equipment, and techniques safely.
  • 1.1.2 - Explain the results of an investigation to an audience using simple data organizers (e.g., charts, graphs, pictures).
  • 1.2.2 - Describe a variety of changes that occur in nature.
  • 1.3.1 - Identify the requirements of plants and animals to survive (e.g., food, light, water).
  • 1.4.1 - Describe how living things have structures that help them to survive.
  • 1.5.1 - Identify ways in which the same kinds of plants and same kinds of animals differ.
  • 1.5.2 - Describe the physical characteristics of living things that enable them to live in their environment. 
  • 1.6.1 - Identify solids, liquids, and gases and their basic properties.
  • 1.7.1 - Describe how the motion of an object can be changed by force (push or pull). 
  • 1.8.1 - Describe that the sun warms the land, air, and water.
  • 2.1.1 - Develop predictions based on observations. 
  • 2.1.2 - Conduct a simple investigation using a systematic process safely to test a prediction.
  • 2.3.1 - Describe how animals depend on plants and animals. 
  • 2.4.1 - Explain how plants and animals go through life cycles.
  • 2.5.1 - Identify distinct environments and the different kinds of organisms each environment supports. 
  • 2.6.1 - Identify ways to change the physical properties of objects.
  • 2.7.1 - Identify the properties of magnets.
  • 2.8.1 - Identify different Earth materials and classify them by their physical properties. 

Appendix 11: Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements to our writers and editors: Michelle Ah Chong, Betty Bayles, Rachel Biondolillo, Rebekah Blizzard, Meredith Brooks, Neal Buck, Leah Buckman, Judy Dill, Katelin Duffie, Denby Fern, Pam Fujii, Lisa Huynh, Erin Jones, Kari Kennard, Cory Lar Rieu, Abe Lueders, Bethany Lueders, Christin Mitchell, Tracy Miyashiro, Wayne Muirhead, Sandra Nyross, Nathaniel Oh, Janice Okimoto, Jennifer Probus, Dan Silver, Ruth Silver, Pola Taitano, Jennifer Whiteaker

Acknowledgements to our artists: Rei Cayetano, Heidi Cregge, Darnell Domingo, Tracy Hirano, Jessica Holland, Benjamin Lueders, Jake Shimabuku, Jennifer Thorbjornsen, Cherie Tsukayama, Malia Tyner

Acknowledgements to our graphic designer: Benjamin Lueders

Acknowledgements to our layout designers: Rebekah Blizzard, Benjamin Lueders, Vuong Phung, and Kaypee Soh

Acknowledgements to our music composers: Benjamin Lueders and Dan Silver

Acknowledgements to our singers: Benjamin Lueders, Janice Okimoto, Gina Smoots, Chaiah Smoots

Acknowledgements to our reviewers:Catherine Aki, Tui Anderson, Harolynn Arakaki, Alison Baclig, Luly Baker, Erin Baumgartner, Andrea Bell, Rebekah Blizzard, Christel Blumer-Buell, Debora Borges, Amber Botz, Laurie Bradley, Kawaiula Branco, Barbara Bruno, Leah Buckman, Susan Cama, Alison Carveiro, Margaret Cheng, Christine Copes, Lacey Costello, Mary Costello, Sandra Czajkowski, Gloria Del Rosario, Valarie Delos Santos-Duarte, Jan Dierking, Bryan Doo, Rexann Dubiel, Kathleen Dudevoir, Kanesa Duncan, Jeff Eble, Gayle Enriquez, Robin Fancy, Zac Forman, Fredeelyn Freeman-Koepke, Jan Fried, Kathy Galdeira, Alexis Guethler, Heather Hand, Jason Harris, Denise Hayashi, Alison Inouye, Lauren Inouye, Carole Ishimaru, John Kahiapo, Sam Kahng, Lisa Ann Kaili, Sabra Kauka, Brendi Kelii, Amy Kennett, Colby Kearns, David Krupp, Elizabeth Kumabe, Shawn Laatsch, Stephanie Lachance, Ross Langston, Kevin Lauterbach, Linda Lembeck, Autumn Loftus, Sharon Makio, Mackenzie Manning, Veronica Marquez, Andolie Marten, Linde Masuhara, Diane Rene Matsubara, Julie Matsushima, Tara McCraw, Dana Miyashiro, Ray Morikawa, Komarey Moss, Jennifer Nadler, Gwen Narimatsu, Lori Oda, Nathan Oh, Brenda Okano, Ryan Okano, Nancy Okimoto, Alida Ortiz, Maile Ostrem, Lauren Pagarigan, Jeffery Piontek, Donald Price, Bill Puleloa, Maggie Prevenas, Jessica Rivera, Malia Rivera, Consuelo Rogers, Mary Roney, Steve Ross, Carol Rosetta, Chau Sachs, Carmelita Samson, Linda Sciaroni, Celia Smith, Cristina Smith, Michelle Smith, Heather Spalding, Nora Sobrado, Russell Sparks, Katie Stadler, Yuko Stender, John Svenson, Manning Taite, Teri Tavares, Cynthia Thomas, Kim Tice, Michelle Tuzon, Karen Umeda, Gordon Walker, Cecile Walsh, Susie Wendland-Gardner, Kim Weersing, Randi Wold-Brennon, Rose Yamada, Erron Yoshiokaa, Gordon Walker, Cecile Walsh, Susie Wendland-Gardner, Kim Weersing, Randi Wold-Brennon, Rose Yamada, Erron Yoshioka

Acknowledgements to our web designer: Abram Lueders

Appendix 12: Publication Notes

This curriculum is a result of funding from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research, under awards NA04NOS4260172, NA05NOS4261157, NA06NOS4260200, NA07NOS400019, and NA09NOS42602423 to the University of Hawaii for the Hawaii Coral Reef Initiative.

To cite this curriculum: Davidson, K. Minato, C. (eds). 2011. Reef Pulse Hawaii. Social Science Research Institute, University of Hawaii at Manoa. Xx pp.

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